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Tag Archives: medulla.cortex. cuticle.condition. structure

Our love affair with home hair colour


Back2myroots : A place to share thoughts and grow idea’s. B2MR

Welcome to BACK2MYROOTS B2MR


Home Hair Colour: THE PIT FALLS.
Why is home hair colour such big business? Why is it in such demand? cost ? time? ease of use? yes of course. Consider advertising promotion celebrity endorsement products branded by brand name professional stylists. Daily bombardment of beautiful natural style you can create at home from this box of wonder.Hard to ignore right!

I have been inspired to touch on this huge subject . Offer some advise and share some experiences gained from so many great years in our industry.  It’s very cool.

I will try and cover some subjects from the every day challenges to the creative over the top looks oh and some of the hair nightmares we get to fix and advise on! We all need to do understand how things happen and why ! 

Misuse of products. Miss information. Inpatients and not following guide lines and instructions. We can all be guilty of these things at some point in our career! I have already posted topic’s on this blog site on Bleaching. Lift deposit.Toning. Damage. Condition. I have decided that as topic’s they can always be re visited.  Reviewed in depth see most recent topic’s on all subjects.  In the hopes of guiding and providing information that helps avoid pit falls.

                           A list of topic’s that may well be added to:

Bleaching/ Decolourizer/ Lift deposit?/ Toning.

Metallic salts in hair colour.

Re dying hair/ with Drug store colour / Roots Application/colour Balance.

Removing Colour/ Stand tests/ Condition.

Using Pigment / Under tone pigment friend or foe: 

Bleaching Root application.

I also think at this juncture. That it is worth mentioning that.  Not all home colours be they permanent tints or fun fashion shade are what they claim to be. It’s buyer beware. If  your wondering should I colour my hair will it hold colour a very simple test.

Take a strand test. Remove a small amount of your processed hair and drop it into a glass of water. If it sinks fair chance it will not hold colour and is over processed healthy hair will float. If you have a history of colouring and bleaching it on a regular bases. It may feel slimy when wet sort of stretchy time to give it a rest!! it’s toasted! will not hold colour.

Many Products:  Claiming to be. Ammonia free have something else doing the same Job an Alkaline. MEA , Grain Alcohol derivatives. Other products that manipulate the ph of the hair.[see past posting on subject] They in some cases can contain trace elements of metallic salts. This is why it’s essential to do a stand test. prior to applying bleach a chemical reaction can occur creating heat. 

                    In worst case this heat can melt over processed hair

To determine if hair has been colored by a metallic dye, mix 1 oz. of 20-volume peroxide with 20 drops of 28% ammonia. Submerge 20 strands of hair in the solution and let it sit at room temperature for about 30 minutes. If the hair lightens rapidly, the hair contains lead. If there is no reaction after 30 minutes, the hair contains silver or bismuth. If the solution starts to boil and emits a foul odor, the hair contains copper. Hair that has no metallic salts on it should lighten only very slightly.

I hope that this information is helpful and that the topic’s  covered do help with some of the issues that can happen when colouring and re colouring hair. Without knowledge of the products chemistry or formulation the risks of a chemical reaction or poor results or indeed allergic reaction can be a risk.

How confusing is it for both stylist and the consumer when you can go on line for advise and sound information and you get material such as below. quite shocking!

lets take a look:

I have written my response in heavy print:

TYPES OF HAIR COLOR

Permanent Color:

Permanent color gives you 100% complete coverage. Most permanent color uses peroxide (10 to 40 vol.) and ammonia. The downside is regrowth of new hair – it is a different shade and will leave a line of “demarcation”, or regrowth.

Most permanent hair colour uses 10 to 20 volume peroxide 40 vol would only be used for high lift blonde formulations, In most cases 40 vol is not recommended for scalp application. this type of application requires colour balancing unless first application.

Not all colour is driven by Ammonia many options available.

Semi-Permanent Color:

Color usually contains some ammonia and uses a developer of 10 to 20 vol.

Although it normally contains something to slightly open the Cuticle it does not have Ammonia nor does it have Peroxide much less 10 to 20 vol.

Demi-Permanent Color:

Uses peroxide in low vols. (under 10 vol.). Many have no ammonia and leave little damage. When the color fades, it does gradually so it leaves no line of demarcation.

Normally uses around 5vol for the oxidation of the colour molecule may have low amount of ammonia or some other substance to open the cuticle fro slightly deeper deposit. long term use of this formulation will result in build up and possible re growth line slow fading, ideal for Grey coverage with out going permanent

Semi-Temporary Color:

These will last a short time (1-4 weeks). The usually incur no damage to the hair. You can expect about 40-60% gray coverage.

A direct dye/stain lies on the surface of the hair very little deposit so fades as washed whilst will blend Grey hair  some types more than others will not give full deposit will build up over time, they s sometimes have an alkaline in them to enable a little deposit.

Temporary/ Color Rinse:

Color lasts from one shampoo to the next and is deposited on the outside of the hair shaft.

As with a Semi permanent these can and do vary in their chemistry and how long they last depend on amount of washing and porosity of the hairthey can cause staining issues

Levels of Hair Color:

1=Black 2= Dark Brown 
3=Dark Brown
 4=Brown
 5=Medium Brown
 6=Light Brown
7=Dark Blonde
8=Light Blonde
9=Very Light Blonde
10=Light Platium Blond:

A standard International colour shade chart:

1black                        1/0

3Dark Brown             3/0

4 Medium Brown       4/0

5 light Brown             5/0

6 Dark Blonde            6/0

7 Medium Blonde       7/0

8 Light Blonde            8/0

9 Clear Blonde            9/0

10 Extra light Blonde   10/0

COLORED HAIR CARE TIPS

Colored and treated hair needs extra special care to keep it in good condition.

Wear hats, scarves or products with sunscreens when in the sun, to help protect against color fade and the drying effects of the sun.

Leave in conditioners generally contain sunscreens to protect against color fade.

Rough shampooing can strip color or dry out hair, so shampoo gently with a shampoo specially created for colored/treated hair.

Condition regularly with an intensive conditioner to restore vital moisture and luster to colored/treated hair.

Use color enhancing conditioners as color grows out to help blend root areas.

Be wary of these colour enhancing products they stain and can effect the hair for future colouring processes :

Do not wrap your wet hair in a towel turban after a shower. The added friction can knot and damage vulnerable wet hair. Instead, carefully blot hair dry.

Don’t brush hair when wet. Comb with a wide-tooth comb, working tangles out as you move from the end towards the scalp.

Don’t overdry. When you blow dry, dry the hair until it is almost but not completely, dry. Leave some moisture in to prevent static.

Well what is over dry? leaving hair damp will make it loose style & shape  Hot ceramic irons take care of all moisture just use a blow dry heat protector don’t leave it damp!

Use care when styling. When using styling appliances, use thermal protector for maximum protection. Avoid aggressive manipulation of the hair.

Well this contradicts the about don’t over dry

Use hairspray or spritz with moisturizers and sunscreens to finish the hair. These products will provide continual protection throughout the day.

personal choice some with silicone will tend to make hair limp

Don’t spray lightening agents or put lemon juice in your hair.

Yippee one to agree with

Support your style with a perm. Just because you have color treated hair doesn’t mean you can’t have a perm. In fact, a perm specially formulated for color treated hair can add wonderful body, fullness and texture to complement your color.

Well who has perms these days colouring and perming is double processing will damage dry out cause colour to fade:

What is written in the heavy print is my view i found this information in this article miss leading and quite scary to think it’s posted as informative educational material.

please please do lots of research when looking for information and advise keep looking until you find articles that are all giving the same advise and information.

Although I offer sound advise. Every head is different the  history on any given head is different so information and advise offered is only guidance. Although I am a qualified  professional i cannot guarantee results on any given head.

If in doubt get a professional consultation it should be free and without commitment. 

All of the topic’s and articles posted are designed and share knowledge and experience Hoping to inspire and raise standards.

Mike B2MR                   http://www.back2myroots.co.uk/   







 

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Hair colouring the Chemistry. How it works.


Back2myroots : A place to share thoughts and grow idea’s. B2MR

Through out history man has coloured his or her hair from using tribal muds and stains to the days of fancy pre dyed and styled wigs. Discovering permanent ways to alter and colour our own hair. Having an understanding of how this process works is key to attaining good results without causing damage or having a hair disaster.
A French chemist Eugene Schuller. Discovered the first safe commercial hair colour around the early 1900’s. Using chemical paraphenylenediamine.
Today with over 75% of women coloring their hair to some degree or another. With either help form a professional hair colour technician or by applying store purchased home colour  It is also now more widely acceptable that a growing percentage of men now also colour their hair .
With society so acceptable of hair colour how does it work? What is the hair colour process.
It’s a finally balanced series of chemical reactions between the molecules in the hair structure, the natural pigments that make up the hair’s colour. Along with a formulation that may also contain. A peroxide and ammonia or some other form of alkaline to help make the process work.
What is Hair?

Hair is mainly keratin, the same protein found in skin and fingernails. When warm and wet it’s soft and pliable. When dry or heated it hardens and protects the hair’s inner structure.

The natural color of hair depends on the ratio and quantities of two other proteins, eumelanin and phaeomelanin. Eumelanin is responsible for brown to black hair shades while phaeomelanin is responsible for golden blond, ginger, and red colors. The absence of either type of melanin produces white or grey hair pigment deficient. It is having an understanding of these pigments that is key to successful hair colouring .Do we want to utilise or neutralise the pigment’s as we expose them in the lifting process.This in simple terms is do we want to sue the pigment to enrich the colour and shade or do we want to control or mask it!

Natural Colorants

As I stated at the start of this topic man and different cultures have been coloring their hair for thousands of years. Using plants extracts and minerals. It is these pigments found in such products as  (e.g., henna, black walnut shells beetroot juice.) others contain natural bleaching agents or cause reactions that change the color of hair (e.g., vinegar lemon juice). Natural pigments generally work by coating the hair shaft with colour  they coat the outer shaft some times lasting for several shampoos, however they aren’t necessarily safer or more gentle than modern formulations. So can have metallic salts in them. Some can and will build up on the hair.In some cases they cannot be removed.  It’s difficult to get consistent results using natural colorants, Skin test is alway recommended even with these so called natural products

Temporary Hair Color

Temporary or semi-permanent haircolors may deposit acidic dyes or direct dyes onto the outside of the hair shaft .Direct dyes are fully matured and so are to big to be readily absorbed into the inner hair structure.unless an amount of an alkaline is present to open the cuticle. In some cases smaller  pigment molecules are used they can more readerly slip inside the hair shaft  some using a small amount of peroxide.

If peroxide is used in  a product one should expect some lifting of the hair natural level and possible warmth from said lifting of the pigment. or none at all depending on formulation. In some cases, a collection of several colorant molecules enter the hair to form a larger complex inside the hair shaft. Shampooing will eventually dislodge temporary hair color. These products don’t contain ammonia,  but may have some other form of alkaline in them. If an alkaline is present the deposit will be more long lasting that normal temporary colour.

In normal temporary colour the hair shaft isn’t opened up during processing and the hair’s natural color is retained once the product washes out.

How Lightening Works

Bleach is used to lighten hair. The bleach reacts with the melanin in hair, removing the color in an irreversible chemical reaction. Normally after bleaching toning will be required to some degree to neutralise unwanted undertone exposed. The bleach oxidizes the natural melanin molecule. The melanin is still present, but the oxidized molecule is colourless.  Bleached hair that is fully lifted of pigment will retain a pale yellow hue. The yellow colour is the natural colour of keratin, the structural protein in hair.

Bear in mind bleach reacts more readily with the dark eumelanin pigment than with the phaeomelanin. Some gold or red residual colour may remain after lightening,again tis is when toning may be required to rebalance the pigment exposed.

Hydrogen peroxide is one of the most common lightening agents. The peroxide is used in an alkaline solution, which opens the hair shaft to allow the peroxide to react with the melanin lifting it in degree’s depending on the strength of peroxide timing and formulation.Of course it will also vary depending on the natural level of the hair .the darker the hair the more lift will be required and so the longer it will take to get a desired level of lift.The darker the shade the more red and orange you will have to contend with when trying to get to that pale yellow. required if you want a very blonde tone!

Permanent Hair Color

The outer layer of the hair shaft is the cuticle or order to permanently change the hair  colour and for new artificial colour to be deposited into the hair we have to open this cuticle.  We open the cuticle by using an alkaline and raising the hair’s natural Ph from around 5.5 up to around 7 in some cases higher levels are used this can and will damage the hair and lead to poor colour retention. The dye reacts with the inner portion of the hair, the cortex, to deposit or remove the color. Most permanent hair colours use a two-step process normally they work simultaneously. First removes the original colour of the hair at the same time depositing the new color. It’s essentially the same process as lightening, except a colorant is then bonded within the hair shaft.

Ammonia or another alkaline is the chemical that opens the cuticle and allows the hair color to penetrate the cortex of the hair. It also acts as a catalyst when the permanent hair color comes together with the peroxide. Peroxide is used as the developer or oxidizing agent it does this by aggravating the colour molecule and making it swell. The developer removes pre-existing color. Peroxide breaks chemical bonds in hair, releasing sulfur, which accounts for the characteristic odor of haircolor. As the melanin is decolorized, a new permanent color is bonded to the hair cortex. Various types of alcohols and conditioners may also be present in hair colour. The conditioners help  close the cuticle after colouring and re balance that Ph level to seal in and protect the new colour.Alcohol is quite drying on the hair and is also another ingredient used to open the cuticle in the colour process,It can be also found in semi and temporary colours again to help with deposit of the colour molecules.

In closing this rather long and  technical blog all is not what it always seems and appears to be. Understand that chemistry trust your knowledge and research stay informed question and think. As and raise question seek the answers you need. Remember This! The only stupid question is the one never asked! 

Mike B2MR

 

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Hair structure. Hair colour molecules and Ph


Back2myroots : A place to share thoughts and grow idea’s. B2MR

Hair Structure:

To understand the dynamic’s of hair colour, the how and why’s we need to look deep into the hair’s inner structure. Look at it’s layers and how they are affected and changed during the hair-colour process.By better understanding these functions and changes,we can avoid common hair colour problems and achieve the best possible results.

The Cuticle

The protective outer layer of the hair shaft is called the Cuticle.

The cuticle is made up of translucent overlapping layers of keratin protein.

The main functions of the cuticle are

*protection

*pliability

*strength

*sheen

*porosity

The cortex

The cortex contains keratin protein consisting of 19 amino acids,these long amino acid chains give the hair it’s elasticity. Two of key amino acids we effect in the colour process . Tyrosien this is key to hair colour pigment retention. Cysteien found in the hair’s helix helps with curl formulation effected in the perming process. Keratin is a natural fibrous protein cross-linked by sulfur bonds [cystine].

The Medulla

The medulla is the inner layer of the center of the hair shaft, it is comprised of a softer keratin than the cortex.

The cellular structure is similar to that of a raw sponge and is part of the bodies excretory system, eliminating toxin’s from the blood stream. This is why in the consultation process we have to have full disclosure with regard to medication, drugs, that could be present in the hair, and could effect the chemical process we are going to perform.

Well the colour bus moves on  towards Developers lets touch on types of pigment.

Types of Pigment

Artificial pigment is categorised into tow groups:

*Direct pigment

*Non-Direct pigment

Direct Pigment

Direct pigment or Direct dyes are, large fully oxidative colour pigments. Due to the fact that these dye pigments are fully developed they are too large to be readily absorbed through the cuticle into the cortex. They tend to lie on the outer shaft of the hair, in some cases depending on the chemistry of the colour they may have enough alkaline to partially open the cortex for partial deposit.

By design they are stains temporary colour semi permanents. [more to follow on these types of colour]

Non direct Pigment

Non-direct pigment is a molecular colour system utilising small undeveloped pigments to achieve a colour change.

The molecules pass through the Cuticle layer[with ease due to there size] entering the cortex where interaction with other oxidative ingredients [ alkaline, hydrogen peroxide,] creating colour change.

How so? The formulation is our tube of colour in this case our non direct colour pigments mixed with a chosen level of hydrogen peroxide.

Most permanent hair colors use a two-step process (usually occurring simultaneously) These step’s serve to remove the original color of the hair and then deposits a new color. It’s essentially the same process as lightening, but it’s working with the hair’s natural pigment, as it gentle lightens the pigment  to attain a target colour, colorant is then bonded within the hair shaft. Ammonia [or another alkaline substance] are the alkaline chemical that  gentle opens the cuticle and allows the hair color to penetrate the cortex of the hair. It also acts as a catalyst when the permanent hair color comes together with the peroxide. Peroxide is used as the developer or oxidizing agent. The developer lifts pre-existing color. Peroxide breaks chemical bonds in hair, releasing sulfur, this can account for the characteristic odor of hair color unless masked by other added ingredients . As the melanin is decolorized, a new permanent color is bonded to the hair cortex. Various types of alcohols and conditioners may also be present in hair color. The conditioners  and restoring the hair’s natural level of Ph, We close the cuticle after coloring to seal in and protect the new color. Timing and formulation are the key to effectiveness of any colour application.

Non-direct pigments only affect the natural colour pigments [melanin]and have little or know staining effect. they tend to be found in Demi colour and permanent colour formulations.

This creates long lasting,vibrant hair colours.

Here we are on the colour bus so many stops to make , for our part we are just the tour guides, you as passengers can get on and off as you please. You become the drive when you choose the route, the topic’s of interest to you, when you decide to do the work, decide to use this information as tool to update your skills and knowledge.

The more we put this together the more the realisation of how big a topic we have to share with you.

So next stop developers but we feel to tie developers in with hair structure and pigment we have to touch on the subject of the Ph of hair and role it plays.

The Ph of hair:

When we do any chemical service on the hair be it colour, perming, relaxing, we have to create an environment that enables us to get below the surface layer the cuticle layer of the hair ,

This is the outer layer that serves to protect the inner structure from both damage and moisture loss,

the inner layer being the cortex and Medulla.

Once we have decide on the service we are going to perform in this case colour the formulation we choose will dictate the amount of deposit the more we open the cuticle the deeper the deposit.

So understanding Ph, lift, deposit, is key to being able to perform outstanding colour services.

The Ph scale tells us the working environment of the hair and helps us determine the ideal product for any given hair type.

 

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Understanding Hair Structure:


Welcome to BACK2MYROOTS B2MR:

Regular postings of fresh new topic’s

                          Understanding hair structure:

To be a good hair colourist.We have to know so much! Understanding how the hair structure works. What role it plays this is key to  successful colouring.

In order to understand the dynamics of hair colour. We need to look at the hair’s inner structure and understand how it is affected and changed in the colour process.

The Cuticle:

The protective outer layer of the hair shaft the Cuticle is made up of Translucent overlapping layers of keratin protein.

Each layer completely encompasses the hair shaft.

imagine a stack of paper cups that might give you a visual image of the Cuticle.

Just as you might be able to bend a stack of cups without pulling apart the structure of the hair has the same pliability.

The cuticle affords the hair about 25% of its strength.

When the Cuticle is healthy it will lie flat against the hair shaft light will reflect of the translucent layers allowing the hair to appear to shine.

When we perform a chemical service on the hair perming or colour the Cuticle has to be opened to allow any chemical process to penetrate into the cortex to do this one has to change the natural Ph of the hair to do this we have to use an alkaline.

In the past ammonia has been the main driver of this part of the colouring process but it has always been though to cause damage and tends to smell.

Recently most of the major hair colour companies have been promoting healthy all natural products personally i find this marketing misleading now the catch words are herbal, organic, natural, unfortunately the products now driving the colour are MEA and Denatured Alcohol are they any less drying and damaging to the cuticle ? you decide! they all serve to open the cuticle they are all an alkaline.  personally i would rather know the strength of the ammonia in a colour rather than work with an unknown many professional hair colours did have quite high levels of ammonia i can live with ).4% up to2%.

Many Colour companies have replaced having bees wax as a buffer in hair colour with oil and silicon,

naturally after any chemical service the the correct Ph level must be restored to close the cuticle and restore that natural looking sheen a chemical balancing product is good for this it will restore the hair back to a pH of around 5.5.

The Cortex:

The Cortex makes up the bulk of the hair shaft the Cortex is composed of Keratin protein and 19 Amino acids. Keratin is a natural fibrous protein cross linked by sulfur bonds in the cortex the inner structure of the hair is known as the helix. we also find covalent and ionic bonds these are also effected by chemical services.

keratin is another well marketed product it it’s naturally in the hair then added to products it must be good most hair products that have Keratin in them have a source derived from animal, vegetable, or mineral, Keratin from these sources will only lie on the out side of the hair with over use can make the hair slightly brittle so given the cost restrictions most companies opt for the cheaper source although these can and will give the sheen and make the hair look healthy they do not penetrate through the cuticle layer of hair. { molecular size is to Big 500}   The only keratin able to penetrate into the hair has to be hydrolyzed human hair Keratin.{molecular weight 150-300 able to penetrate the hair}

Fact {Hair is 89%protein and 10% moisture} so the only keratin that really can help the hair on an internal level is sourced from human hair.

On right healthy shining highlighted hair with Multi tones:

The medulla:

The medulla is the inner layer or center of the hair shaft, it is made up of softer Keratin protein than in the cortex it could be best described as being like raw sponge part of the  Medulla function is linked to the bodies excretory system.

Understand the roles of the above layers is key to performing good chemical services on the hair.

http://www.back2myroots.co.uk/

The Above facts are well worth having in your tool kit of knowledge when performing Chemical services on the Hair!


 

Tags:

Any given strand.


Understanding hair structure:

To be a good hair colourist we have to know so much!

In order to understand the dynamics of hair colour we need to look at the hair’s inner structure and understand how it is affected and changed in the colour process.

The Cuticle:

The protective outer layer of the hair shaft the Cuticle is made up of Translucent overlapping layers of keratin protein.

Each layer completely encompasses the hair shaft.

imagine a stack of paper cups that might give you a visual image of the Cuticle.

Just as you might be able to bend a stack of cups without pulling apart the structure of the hair has the same pliability.

The cuticle affords the hair about 25% of its strength.

When the Cuticle is healthy it will lie flat against the hair shaft light will reflect of the translucent layers allowing the hair to appear to shine.

When we perform a chemical service on the hair perming or colour the Cuticle has to be opened to allow any chemical process to penetrate into the cortex to do this one has to change the natural Ph of the hair to do this we have to use an alkaline.

In the past ammonia has been the main driver of this part of the colouring process but it has always been though to cause damage and tends to smell.

Recently most of the major hair colour companies have been promoting healthy all natural products personally i find this marketing misleading now the catch words are herbal, organic, natural, unfortunately the products now driving the colour are MEA and Denatured Alcohol are they any less drying and damaging to the cuticle ? you decide! they all serve to open the cuticle they are all an alkaline.  personally i would rather know the strength of the ammonia in a colour rather than work with an unknown many professional hair colours did have quite high levels of ammonia i can live with ).4% up to2%.

Many Colour companies have replaced having bees wax as a buffer in hair colour with oil and silicon,

naturally after any chemical service the the correct Ph level must be restored to close the cuticle and restore that natural looking sheen a chemical balancing product is good for this it will restore the hair back to a pH of around 5.5.

The Cortex:

The Cortex makes up the bulk of the hair shaft the Cortex is composed of Keratin protein and 19 Amino acids. Keratin is a natural fibrous protein cross linked by sulfur bonds in the cortex the inner structure of the hair is known as the helix. we also find covalent and ionic bonds these are also effected by chemical services.

keratin is another well marketed product it it’s naturally in the hair then added to products it must be good most hair products that have Keratin in them have a source derived from animal, vegetable, or mineral, Keratin from these sources will only lie on the out side of the hair with over use can make the hair slightly brittle so given the cost restrictions most companies opt for the cheaper source although these can and will give the sheen and make the hair look healthy they do not penetrate through the cuticle layer of hair. { molecular size is to Big 500} The only keratin able to penetrate into the hair has to be hydrolyzed human hair Keratin.{molecular weight 150-300 able to penetrate the hair}

Fact {Hair is 89%protein and 10% moisture} so the only keratin that really can help the hair on an internal level is sourced from human hair.

On right healthy shining highlighted hair with Multi tones:

The medulla:

The medulla is the inner layer or center of the hair shaft, it is made up of softer Keratin protein than in the cortex it could be best described as being like raw sponge part of the  Medulla function is linked to the bodies excretory system.

Understand the roles of the above layers is key to performing good chemical services on the hair.

http://www.back2myroots.co.uk/

The Above facts are well worth having in your tool kit of knowledge when performing Chemical services on the Hair!

Link to Twitter http://twitter.com/noegoman/

 
Comments Off on Any given strand.

Posted by on June 15, 2010 in Hair Colour, HAIR DRESSING INDUSTRY, TIPS TRICKS, THOUGHTS,

 

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