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Alkalinity and Ph. The process of hair colouring.


Back2myroots :

A place to share thoughts and grow idea’s. B2MR

When it comes to understanding the chemistry of hair colouring. Get educated not mislead!                         

As Hairdressers when considering doing  hair colour . We owe it to our selves and indeed the client to do the best job possible, more than that give the best service and advise possible, suggesting colour that works with skin tone and eye colour. Work with the best products available, understand the chemistry of the product how it works reacts with hair, what condition with it leave the hair in. Spend some time reading the technical manual in the colour chart know and trust your product.

Many hair colours today claim great condition no Ammonia. However claims of no ammonia does not always mean great condition, some times we sacrifice one evil for another. When no ammonia is present in permanent colour another alkaline is introduced as a replacement or substitute.There has to be a presence of an alkaline for the colouring process to work

We are talking permanent colour.  The process is not the same in Semi or Demi colour but they to can be misleading in their chemical makeup! So always get informed read the black stuff ask questions.

It’s all so complicated. Education, technical knowledge, a greater understanding of the products that you are using is essential. Understand what MEA is another favorite derived from Ethanolamine. Alcohol Denatured. Do you know what this is? It’s alcohol derived from fermented grain used as an alkaline it can be very drying but because a grain by product marketed as being natural! Very misleading

Why does Ammonia get such a bad wrap just because it smells ? The damage it can cause depends on the strength being used and the way applied timing, heat, temperature,

Ammonia! GET’S A BAD WRAP SO THEY CAN RELAUNCH OR SELL A NEW CONCEPT

High lift Blondes have an extra kick! Most hair colour lines have high lift blonde range, these again have an alkaline from some source however it may be that extra lift is promoted. In many cases companies also add  Ethanolamine to their high lift colour to open the cuticle more! They don’t normally advertise or disclose this fact it’s disclosed in the small print on the instructions on the paper work inside the box .

So why is MEA  such an  innovation? MEA now promoted to replace Ammonia can any one enlighten me?

Definition: 

MEA Monoethanolamine:

Can be used as a selective absorber and plays an important role in the production of Ammonia! MEA Monoethanolamine obtained from the reaction of ammonia and Ethylene. Ethlene a bio fuel so we are back to grain Alcohol! but derived from grain so natural! does this make it ok ? Would you think that good for hair?

Definition:

Alcohol denatured:

A general term for organic ingredients that contain the OH (hydroxyl) group. Alcohols differ substantially in their properties ranging from water soluble solvents like isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol.
Sounds good too!

Definition:

Ammonia:

An alkaline ingredient used in some permanent hair color. Ammonia is an ingredient that results in a chemical action that decolorizes the hair. A colorless, pungent gas, NH3,  first step in the nitrogen cycle. 

Ammonia is generated by fish urine and by the decay of dead fish and plant material. Many professional hair colours have 0.4 to 1.2% Ammonia be aware some companies have levels way above this quite low level of working alkalinity.

The choice dead decaying fish or fermenting Grain both really a natural source.
As we can see although some companies portray natural less harmful chemistry it is not always the case. adding natural oils or waxes to protect scalp to make application easier are all part of this process.

This is why knowledge research are key and empowering when it comes to colouring hair and the choices we make on products must go beyond what the sales rep or promotion material say.

I am not trying to scare just inform encourage thinking research! I think that we also need to cover the important role that understanding Ph chart and the role that it plays in the hair colouring process and indeed the chemistry of all chemical services performed on the hair.

                                       review of  aPh balance chart.

A little help with Ph balance chart: When we do any chemical service on the hair be it. Colour. Perming. Relaxing. We have to create an environment that enables us to get below the surface layer the cuticle layer of the hair ,

This is the outer layer that serves to protect the inner structure from both damage and moisture loss, the inner layer being the cortex and Medulla.

Once we have decide on the service we are going to perform in this case colour. The formulation we choose will dictate the amount of deposit the more we open the cuticle the deeper the deposit.

So understanding Ph, lift, deposit, are key to being able to perform outstanding colour services.

                               Three layers of the hair structure.

Healthy hair should have a Ph of 5 to 5.5  when we introduce an alkaline be it Ammonia which comes in many different strengths the stronger the more it will open the cuticle. The same can be said for other colour drivers MEA, Dealcoholised grain products. All serve the same purpose to manipulate the Ph of the hair to create an environment for performing any chemical service. The stronger the product the more the cuticle will be opened and the more damage can be done.It is essential after a process to re balance the hair and close the cuticle and restore that natural balance of 5.5.

This can be done with a chemical balancing product these normally have a Ph of 2.5 when introduced to the hair it will close the cuticle and restore the ph balance of the hair to 5.5.

Always be aware to consider the hair condition and assess during consultation before deciding on any chemical service knowing and understanding the Ph of hair is key to keeping it healthy and allowing colour retention or retaining moisture after the perming process.

Part of the consultation process should address the condition, porosity, moisture level. issues of fading. colour retention. These are all things effected by the hair’s Ph level being at a correct level.

It is also during this consultation process to not only assess the hair both by touch and visual inspection. but through communication getting a fully in depth history of past products used and indeed products being used at this time.

With so many products that manipulate our Ph mantle opening the cuticle to deposit anything from stains to silicone based products that over time will build up in the hair, note they can cause issues when trying to get even deposit in the colouring process.

This is why it is essential that as stylist’s we have a good all round knowledge of products and how they work on the hair during any chemical process.

Healthy hair should have a Ph of 5 to 5.5  when we introduce an alkaline be it Ammonia which comes in many different strengths the stronger the more it will open the cuticle. The same can be said for other colour drivers MEA, Dealcoholised grain products. All serve the same purpose to manipulate the Ph of the hair to create an environment for performing any chemical service. The stronger the product the more the cuticle will be opened and the more damage can be done.Healthy hair should have a Ph of 5 to 5.5  when we introduce an alkaline be it Ammonia which comes in many different strengths the stronger the more it will open the cuticle. The same can be said for other colour drivers MEA, Dealcoholised grain products. All serve the same purpose to manipulate the Ph of the hair to create an environment for performing any chemical service. The stronger the product the more the cuticle will be opened and the more damage can be done.

Ok a brief stop to review Ph now we can move onto developers with so much more knowledge of the colouring process.

Developers:

This really is such a huge topic and so important choosing the correct strength is the key to success. Developers play such a huge role in the degree of lift and deposit we decide upon, allowing us to expose the pigments we utilise in the hair colour process. The formulation we chose to attain our target colour is a a blend of chosen colour level of developer timing. It’s just like baking the perfect cake! Mess with the recipe it will fail.

Lets work off an example of level 6. Dark Blonde. 6N on most  international colour charts

Depending on the level of peroxide we opt to use. We are going to introduce colour or add undertone from the hairs natural Pigment. {remember level 6 } This gets a little complicated, mainly because in some circles we are mislead as to lift we should expect, from any given strength or volume of  Hydrogen Peroxide. 10 volume or 3% Peroxide: In some circles it’s suggested that it does not lift. I would disagree with this thinking.

The lift you get, is enough to expose the pigment in the hair at that given level. So on our level 6 we would expose Red Orange, by Introducing this warmth into our equation. We have to decide on the role  it plays, how will it influence our colour.

Do we want to Utilize or neutralize the shade exposed? At this point we should consult our shade chart and yes the colour wheel, choose the shade to do the job not just the shade that you like in the swatch! The higher the volume of peroxide the more lift the more pigment to consider.

Note: 

Take a look at a colour wheel if 10 is the lightest then it sits in the yellow segment.

So working from our level 6 what shade would we expose trying to get to level 10? is it possible to get their? lets see.

* 10=  pale yellow off chart

* 9 =    yellow

*8  =     yellow orange

* 7 =    orange

* 6 =    red orange

And so on down the scale.

Level 6 + 10 vol 3% 1 level  still level 6 but with pigment exposed. red orange

Level 6 + 20 vol 3% 2 levels through level 6 up to level 7 orange pigment exposed.

Level 6 +  30 Vol 9% 3 levels through level 6 and 7 into level 8 Yellow Orange pigment exposed.

Level  6 + 40 vol 12% 4 levels through level 6, 7, 8. and into level 9 exposing yellow but still a warm yellow.

4 levels of tint lift. Will not give you lift from level 6 to level 10 you will always struggle with the issue of warmth. { even with a high lift Blonde using adjusted formula with a violet base to neutralize the pigment exposed}.

You should be able to see from this example, that as we lift hair from it’s natural level we expose pigment.This exposed pigment becomes part of our colour formulation,  seeing as we have introduced this pigment into the colour equation  we have to  decide do we want to utilise it or neutralise it. thus creating our target colour. Now we can take time to review and digest the very key points raised for creating perfect colour.

Fact:

Ask your self this question which is the stronger 10 volume hydrogen peroxide or 40 volume?

be honest. I would say that 75% would say 40 Volume!

The fact is they are both the same. the only difference is the 40 vol stays active for longer.[see timing chart]

Think of it like this you have a glass of water in each hand. One glass has 1 alkali dissolving tablet in it this represents 10 vol. The second glass has 4 alkali dissolving tablets in it. This represents 40 vol strength wise they are the same, the only difference is the 4 tablets will fizz for longer.

The difference is not the strength is the longevity of the action in this case lifting! so we are back to formulation and timing.

Having made it this far on our Colour bus journey.We can now appreciate the careful balance that is hair colouring. Having a fuller understanding of the hair’s structure, how we can manipulate it’s Ph, to facilitate the hair colour process. Have a better understanding of lift deposit and how to utilise and neutralise the pigments we expose and use towards out target colour.

You can see the hair colouring process is quite complex and does require thought and knowledge when trying to achieve the very best results.

In closing it was brought to my attention by someone who sent me a question via a hair site about Ph saying that they could not find any information on the subject, I thought this very odd but having looked through the NVQ the offcial guide [Hairdressing foundation] I have to say  i find it very odd that this topic is not covered in some depth.

If you want information on topic’s to ask question go ahead use the section on the Blog.

I hope this is found useful
MikeB2MR
 

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Full head hair bleaching


Welcome to BACK2MYROOTS B2MR:

A place to share thoughts post comments and idea’s on matters relating to hair colouring skill and techniques and anything industry related.

                                                          How not to bleach!

How to Bleach your hair:

A huge topic with so many different answers options variables.

Above i found this information for bleaching a head maybe it was put up in jest if that was the case it’s in bad taste and dangerous in content therefore very misleading!

If not in jest then very dangerous if taken seriously by some one.

lets look at it in a little depth:

Step one suggested supplies.

I would suggest for an on scalp bleach an oil bleach rather than a powder. {why} powder bleach is harsh on the scalp, has a tendency to dry out creating patchy lift.

Oil bleach mixed with booster will give even lift and will not dry out. { Do not mix with any higher volume of peroxide than 20vol} Skin test and possible stand test is advisable.

*If a virgin application start at the ends  work up to roots, the roots will always lift the fastest.

*If a re-application try not to over lap re-growth application over hair already bleached.

*If trying to lift out one fashion shade to apply another go carefully don’t just slap bleach all over remember this hair has already been lifted so is fragile.

As i said many variables to lift out residue of old fashion shade try Clarifying shampoo or a bleach bath Shampoo bleach washed through and worked into hair. {if doing this stay with it constantly watching}

                                  If making up a cocktail to lift old shades out try.

*1/2 oz Clarifying shampoo.

*1oz      Water.

*1oz       20 vol peroxide {or cream developer}

*1 oz      powder bleach.

Apply to clean towel dried hair, work through on area needing lift for 5 to 10 mins. watching all the time wash out rinse thoroughly.

Got side tracked as is aid huge topic, foil is not advisable for an all over application some schools of thought advocate heat, i do not!

The biggest heat loss in the body is through the head so why not use this if heat is required a plastic bag over the application with suffice. { heat only seems to speed up the process but given that the formulation for lift is dependent on the volume of peroxide chosen why rush it’s a process} 

Lets Touch on second stage mix powder bleach until creamy!

How informative is that!  normally direction and mixing instruction come with products they need to be followed, the goal is to get the correct mix of lifting agent to peroxide.

With powder bleach normally 1-part Bleach decolourizer powder to 2-parts peroxide but follow each products instructions:

No Mention of Gloves!!

                                                                        [as stated on scalp no more than 20 vol}

example of colour home kit  contents on right oil base with boosters:

below on left natural level  on right lift attained

I recommended oil bleach this comes with a bottle of liquid+sachets of powder you can mix one or two sachets or boosters with the correct amount of liquid. mix together until a gel then add the recommended    amount of peroxide mix thoroughly.

Another option for removing  some of the fashion shades is Colour remover it works very well but i must state that some of the fashion shades really stain  heavy build up of staining can cause problems.

                                  lifting agent bleach powder:

Hair Lighteners:  Powder Bleach, Oil or Gel.

Before Embarking On lightening hair one has to understand the chemistry of the product and how the process works.

Hair Lighteners come in many forms and are designed to remove Colour from the hair.Basically they are Alkalisers.

How do these work:

They are products that supply Sufficient Alkali to destabilise hydrogen peroxide, when the two products are mixed together the Hydrogen attacks the pigment in the hair and Lightens it.

Hydrogen Peroxide is Stabilised in a bottle with a low Ph around {3.00-3.5} adding the lightener be it {powder or liquid-gel} brings the mixture up to a Ph of around 9.0 triggering oxygen release.

Types of Lighteners:

Bleach powder Lighteners are for the most part Stronger and faster acting, Generally used for off scalp Lightening application. { always do skin and stand test} Lifting Ability depends on the strength of hydrogen peroxide.

Lotions Oil -Gel:             

These have a smoother consistency and are formulated to protect the skin/ scalp from the lightening process.

 {Be advised that adding heat/ dry or steam will change the way these products react: powder bleach can dry out under heat!

Ingredients:

The chemical Structure of lighteners are Ammonia.Ammonia hydroxide,Magnesium silicate,and sodium. quite the mix all lighteners have to be mixed with hydrogen peroxide.

{ Be advised hair that has been coloured with any kind of metallic rinse, colour or stain, will create a heat reaction that can cause burning so do your home work!}

When to use:

A key tool for colour correction, but generally they are used when other products available cannot give the desired degree of Lightening.{ Remember High lift Tint will only give max 4levels of lift when mixed with 40vol Peroxide} 

Uses: High-lights, pastel blonde look when hair is strongly or pigmented darker shades.

Mixing:  

Always follow Instructions on each given product! for lotions/gel /oil double amount of Hydrogen peroxide is often called for. lotions and lighteners/Booster powders must always be mixed in Sequence,{note: mixed out of sequence can result in uneven lift!}

Stages of Lightening:

When lifting /lightening hair it goes through what is known as the 7 stages of lift. it has no limits it can remove all pigment form the hair.

Remember the Colour wheel: {you can see shades in the outer} wheel      

The stages are as follows.

Red-Brown. Red. Red-orange. orange-yellow. yellow -orange.

yellow.pale yellow.

The first colour is always the stronger shade!

The deeper the base shade the more stages of lift required its a journey don’t rush it.

Advantages:

*lightens hair.

*Can be used for colour Correction.

*Adds Texture.

Disadvantages:

*re-growth needs to be maintained.

*Can damage hair.

*Can cause Skin irritation.

* Hair should be protected form Uv -sun light.

Summing Up:

A very useful Tool for us to have but should be respected and understood, I advocate the best path is the one with the least chemistry possible.

Lets re touch on bleach bath/ Cocktail:

What is a bleach bath used for? It is a tool that we have at our disposal to gently lift unwanted pigment from the hair. It is classed as the first line of attack when doing Colour correction:

One would use this formula to lift pigment {note it does not remove pigment} prior to toning or adding your fun colour.

As i have stated before if you are going bright red you don”t need to remove all pigment yellow or orange is fine! if you want true blue you have to get rid of the yellow toning would do this!

Formula for Cocktail. 1/2 OZ Clarifying shampoo 1oz water. 1oz 20 vol peroxide or developer. 1oz/or scoop of bleach.

Wet hair wear Gloves apply and work into your hair for 10 to 15 mins. wash out really well if you don’t get enough lift don’t give up mix up second batch re apply. don’t rinse out re-apply the water stops the action. Remember lift is all about timing;and observation.

It is a miss conception in thinking that 40vol is stronger than 20 vol not true its just long lasting in how long it lifts for {How long the hydrogen gas re acts the oxygen}.

What is toner

High lift Blonde series:

Toner is basically a tube or bottle of pigment no peroxide designed to neutralize the unwanted pigment you have exposed or created.  deposit only no lift when using toner you need to watch what you are doing it keeps on working so you decide on the tone you want!


All these shades are toners:

B/green/orange base beige neut pale yellow.

G/ yellow/orange base gold

V/ red/ blue Violet neut yellow

A/blue /yellow Green Ash neut orange   


To the right a classic case for toning in my view way to yellow gold?

What would you do here?


To Beige this out lose the warm root hue Violet Toner is required

worked into the hair for a few minutes it will neutralize the warmth

their is no exact time for toning it’s a visual hands on exercise.

do not apply and walk away thinking 20 minutes should be fine!

you may well get over deposit and sludge!

    

                                            http://www.trichocare.co.uk/

I found the above sight they have a product for doing skin allergy testing worth a look!

Here is some information on the above product with so many chemicals and trace elements in colours a topic to be covered very soon  one cannot be to careful.

Quote from sight:

Colourstart is a unique patch test used by hairdressers as a skin allergy test. These tests help the hairdresser to check if clients are likely to have a problem with hair dye. The alternative is often unpopular and impractical for clients. Colourstart is used on clients who do not have time to visit the salon 48 hours before every application. It is used on clients who do not want hair dye left open on their skin.

Colourstart is one of the most important advancements in professional hairdressing. It helps to improve client satisfaction and safety in the salon

Due to its benefits and ease of use, Colourstart is rapidly becoming an industry standard.

Mike B2MR

                                                           Oh Finally Gloves at all times!!!!!

                                                         Share your thought with me on this site:

  


               

                  



 
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Posted by on October 6, 2011 in Ammonia free natural hair colour, Avantgarde hair, Avantgarde/ creative hair, Beauty hair salon, Beauty hair style, Beauty tips, Blonde, Blonde highlights, Bridal hair, Bridal updo looks, brunette to Blonde, chemical reactions, Classic Chinion. The laws of colour, Colour correction, colour wheel laws of colour, colouring Grey hair, corrective colour chart, corrective hair colour charts, Creative Hair cuts, Foaming hair colour, freelance Mobile hair stylists, French Pleat, Full head hair bleach and tone, grey hair issues, Hair and style, hair chemistry, Hair Colour, hair colour education, Hair colour techniques, hair colour trends, hair colouring lift deposit, Hair Cuts, Hair cutting, hair cutting style, Hair cutting technique, HAIR DRESSING INDUSTRY, TIPS TRICKS, THOUGHTS,, hair dressing training, Hair dressing training mentoring, Hair lift and deposit, Hair salon chair rental, Hair salon consultation, Hair salon service sales., Hair salon service's, Hair smoothers relaxers, Hair structure and Ph chart, Hair style, Hair style crative colour techniques, Hair stylist consultation, Hair Stylist standards, hair up/do formal, Hairdressing, hairdressing business, Hairdressing colour style trends, hairdressing education, hairstyle, home hair colour, Keratin hair relaxer, Level 6 to 9 natural blonde hair, Lifting Dark hair with High lift colour, Lifting natural dark and warm hair shades, Metallic salts, Multi tonal low lights, Natural Blonde. want it!, natural level 7 to 9 blonde, Ombre hair colour, Qualification., Razor cut is cutting edge, REDS HOT AND COLD, Solid hair colour going lighter, Stylist's Certification, That special Day make it so!, The colour wheel, The Hair Salon, up do'd, Wedding day hair

 

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Semi permanent hair colour:


Welcome to BACK2MYROOTS B2MR

Created as a source of advise education knowledge skill experience a place to share thoughts post comments and idea’s on matters relating to hair colouring skill and techniques and anything industry related.

Semi Permanent Hair Colour:

Mousse, gels. Demi, permanent,

When we think about semi permanent colour we naturally assume slow wash out or fade maybe 6 to 8 washes up to 6weeks.

In reality we have to consider so many things be it in the salon or at home? what we expect from this colour ,what is my hair condition is it advisable?

Are we going tone on tone are we putting a darker shade than our natural level not a great deal is achieved putting lighter over darker!

If putting a cool Red {blue red} over say Blonde as it fades a  pinky, purple, hue could be left. bright true Red could fade leaving {red orange} hue.

The porosity of your own hair plays a part in how these colours may deposit how long they last and how they fade, as well as the chemical make up of the product.

Buyer beware!

A product that is promoted as semi permanent can still have ingredients in the formulation to open the cuticle and help with the deposit of the said colour.

In some cases they can leave behind trace chemical residue the same can be so of the mousse colour refreshing products Reds, Blondes,  they can leave behind trace elements that build up and can effect professional colour applications.

In some cases they can effect the deposit of professional colour creating banding issues or poor deposit.

So as stylists as always consultation is key:

How many of you have cried their eyes out! been close to shaving their heads after unfortunate choice of hair colour? Hands up! Yes ? with hair the colour of scrambled eggs…Dying your hair is not as easy as the adverts make it. And I am not talking about the technique!

it’s product choice  it’s hair condition, it’s history of the hair previous colour, it’s application , it’s formulation, it’s timing.

So the question arise:

I have coloured my hair it’s the wrong shade what can i do?

Was it one tube or bottle or a mix pack?

When you applied the color did you mix 2 things together?  Was it a twist the top asking that you shake 2 suspended liquids together or were you able to apply it straight from the bottle with out mixing anything?

If you mixed 2 things you used a long lasting semi permanent, or what the pro’s call a Demi permanent. They usually contain a very low volume of peroxide and little or no ammonia, they use a different chemical to cause the oxidation instead of ammonia. such a detergent,  {in the form alkaline solution} some have a grain alcohol derivative in them maybe even metallic salts!

If it came straight from the bottle to your hair it was a direct dye or preformed dye molecule in an alkaline solution. The alkaline liquid causes the hair shaft to swell so that the large molecules of color will penetrate slightly into the cortex sticking to the cuticle. This is the principle that the washes out in 15 – 20 shampoos works, the cuticle can’t lie completely flat again because the colored molecules are in the way so each time we shampoo or wet our hair the cuticle raises or swells slightly and the rubbing action of our hands while we lather pulls a few of them off eventually we have none left and our hair is back to nearly its original state.

Having said this continued use or applying to damaged hair you can and will get build up! porosity of hair it’s natural moisture level it’s Ph can be compromised.

DEMI PERMANENT COLOUR:

Two products mixed together much deeper deposit!

Demi  permanent colours use either low levels of ammonia or MEA {methylethylalamine}  in place of the ammonia, to oxidize  the colour molecule low level of  hydrogen peroxide less than 5vol this cause the indirect dye molecules to mature and develop into desired color. While this is considered Demi permanent because it does not lighten natural pigment with continued use it will slowly lighten the hairs natural level so could create regrowth issues and indeed over time fading issues!

The key here is not to over use and always assess the hair before any application:

Final option the one that covers fully but can create the most issues of effecting condition, deposit, banding, health and shine.

Permanent colour:

Normally mixing from a tube but in some form liquid or ge, mixing colour pigment with a peroxide mix  this is a process of lift and deposit. the colour may ammonia or be advertised as being ammonia free. MEA grain alcohol derivative in all cases the action is to change the ph of the hair open the cuticle, These products have hydrogen peroxide in them this serves to purposes it lifts your natural hair level , it also reacts with the colour molecule to help it mature or to develop it.

This is a process of lift and deposit and is permanent, many issues can arise in this choice of product from over processing to poor deposit to not attaining the correct or desired colour.

It is my personal opinion that any one want permanent colour should at least seek professional advise before embarking on this journey!

Finally a home colour correction tool:

Whilst doing research On line I came across a colour remover Product for home use not a thing i would normally promote.

I wrote to Scott and asked him to explain how his remover worked he replied very promptly and i found his description and explanation of the product most interesting. He has also been kind enough to send me a sample to try.


The key to using this product is to follow the instruction to the latter  don’t take short cuts make sure you allow enough time to do this process correctly, this product is evreything it claims to be i wa svery impressed, but remember it only removes artificial pigment if you have coloured your hair a number of times do not expect your natural colour to appear if you have over time lifted your natural level with each colour application using permanent colour. any doubts Scott has contact details on his web site

So before using applying think about your choices and options:

MikeB2MR

 

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